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Quick Guide to Common Types of Referenced Material


Journal References

Include year, volume, issue, and page numbers.

Stahl, D. C., Wolfe, R. W., and Begel, M. (2004). “Improved analysis of timber rivet connections.” J. Struct. Eng., 130(8), 1272-1279.

Conference Proceedings and Symposiums

Include the publisher of the proceedings, AND that entity’s location—city and state or city and country. Only include the sponsor of the conference if it is part of the title of a proceedings. If there is no “publisher”, then the name and location of the sponsor are required.

Garrett, D. L. (2003). “Coupled analysis of floating production systems.” Proc., Int. Symp. on Deep Mooring Systems, ASCE, Reston, VA, 152-167.


Include author, book title, publisher, the publisher’s location, and chapter title and inclusive page numbers (if a whole book is used, or pages here and there throughout, page numbers need not be given).  If no author is listed, alphabetize the entry by book title.

Zadeh, L. A. (1981). “Possibility theory and soft data analysis.” Mathematical frontiers of the social and policy sciences, L. Cobb and R. M. Thrall, eds., Westview, Boulder, CO, 69-129


Same as for books, as above. For reports authored by institutions: spell out institution acronym on first use, and follow with acronym in parentheses, if applicable. If subsequent references were also authored by that same institution, use only the acronym. For reports authored by persons, include the full institution name—no acronym—and its location.

Unpublished Material

Unpublished material is not included in the references but may be cited in the text as follows: (John Smith, personal communication, May 16, 1983) or (J. Smith, unpublished internal report, February 2003).

In Press Articles

As an exception to the “Unpublished Material” section above, in press articles (i.e., those that have been accepted but have not yet been published) may be included in the references as follows:

Dasgupta, G. (2008). “Stiffness matrix from isoparametric closed form shape functions using exact integration.” J. Aerosp. Eng., in press.  

In press articles should be updated to include the actual publication information whenever possible.

Web Pages

Include author, year of publication or last revision, title of “page,” title of the complete work, Web address enclosed within angle brackets, and date material downloaded.

Burka, L. P. (1993). “A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions.” MUD history, <> (Dec. 5, 1994).


Include authors, copyright date, titles, medium, producer/publisher and its location, and section, chapter, and page numbers if available.

Liggett, J. A., and Caughey, D. A. (1998). “Fluid statics.” Fluid mechanics (CD-ROM), ASCE, Reston, VA, Section 3.1, Chapter 2, 167-177.

Theses and dissertations

Include authors, copyright date, title, and the name and location of the institution where the research was conducted. Note that some institutions use specific terminology; for example, "doctoral dissertation" rather than "Ph.D. thesis".

Sotiropulos, S. N. (1991). "Statis response of bridge superstructures made of fiber reinforced plastic." M.S. thesis, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV.