Amster K. Howard, Jr., M.ASCE,

      is an international pipeline installation expert and instructor on soil classification, earthwork construction control, and pipe installation. He spent over 30 years conducting research on buried pipe and troubleshooting for pipe installation projects for the Bureau of Reclamation. At the Bureau, Mr. Howard participated in preparing specifications, writing installation manuals for pipe ranging in diameter from 2 inches to 25 feet, and training inspectors. He has been a keynote speaker for the European Clay Pipe Association and the Plastic Pipe Institute. His table of E Prime values has been adopted by AWWA, ASTM, and ASCE for use in the Iowa Formula to calculate the deflection of buried flexible pipe. He wrote an ASTM standard for construction practices for plastic pipe and is currently working on a standard for installing pipe using flowable fill. Mr. Howard is now a consulting civil engineer in Lakewood, Colorado.