Guided Online Courses

Schedule

Week 1 — Introduction and background

Learning outcomes

  • Identify key properties and defining characteristics of tornadoes
  • Explain the current state of practice with regard to design for tornadoes
  • Estimate tornado speeds required to cause specific levels of damage to typical buildings

Lectures (7)

  • Course introduction – overview; syllabus, learning objectives, logistics
  • Tornado characteristics – what is a tornado; tornado hazards; how do they form; path length and width
  • Tornadic winds – rating tornadoes from damage using the EF Scale; measured tornado speeds from radar
  • Tornado climatology ‐ when and where do tornadoes occur; occurrence rates; population bias
  • Tornado impacts – tornado damage and common damage mechanisms; tornado losses to life and property
  • Current practice for tornado design – existing codes and standards; storm shelters; nuclear facilities
  • Overview of ASCE 7‐22 tornado requirements – scope of tornado provisions in Ch. 1, 2, 26, 32, and appendix G

Week 2 — Tornado load procedures and tornado hazard maps

Learning outcomes

  • Summarize the scope and limitations of ASCE 7‐22 tornado load requirements
  • Identify tornado load symbols and notations
  • Explain the process for development of the tornado hazard maps
  • Determine tornado speed for any geographic location, building/facility size, shape, and risk category
  • Determine if design for tornado loads is required or not

Lectures (6)

  • Tornado load framework – tornado‐related provisions of Ch. 1, 2, and 26; Ch. 32 coverage and organization
  • Tornado load procedures – section 32.1: scope, limitations, methods, performance‐based design
  • General tornado load provisions  sections 32.2‐32.4, definitions, nomenclature, sign conventions
  • Tornado hazard maps – integration of tornado climatology, wind fields, damage, and uncertainty modeling to create tornado hazard curves and the probabilistic tornado hazard maps in section 32.5 and appendix G
  • Effective plan area – determination of smallest convex polygon; application to essential facilities
  • Tornado speed – determination of tornado speed using hazard maps and online hazards tool; interpolation

Week 3 — Tornado load coefficients and equations

Learning outcomes

  • Explain the differences between wind load and tornado load coefficients and equations
  • Choose appropriate values for the different tornado load coefficients
  • Calculate tornado velocity pressures and design pressures for various elements of a building or other structure

Lectures (7)

  • Tornado velocity pressure – sections 32.7‐32.10; exposure, topographic effects, ground elevation factor, velocity profile
  • Tornado directionality and gust effect factors – sections 32.6 and 32.11; directionality effects; gust effects
  • Tornado internal pressure coefficient – sections 32.12‐32.13; enclosure classification; atmospheric pressure change; impact protection requirements; internal pressures
  • Tornado external pressure coefficients – section 32.14; aerodynamic effects of vertical wind component; adjustment factor for vertical winds
  • Main wind force resisting system load equations – sections 32.15‐32.16; buildings; appurtenances; other structures
  • Component and cladding load – section 32.17; buildings; appurtenances; other structures
  • Wind tunnel method – section 32.18; procedures; limitations

Week 4 — Tornado load calculations and load combinations

Learning outcomes

  • Describe the rationale for how wind and tornado loads are treated differently in load combinations
  • Evaluate tornado loads for a building and for another structure
  • Determine controlling loads on buildings and other structures using strength and ASD load combinations

Lectures (6)

  • Tornado load example part I – evaluate MWFRS tornado loads on a hospital building
  • Tornado load example part II – continuation of example for C&C loads on the hospital building
  • Tornado load example part III – evaluate tornado loads on a vessel at a petrochemical plant
  • Load combinations – sections 2.3 and 2.4; combining tornado loads with wind loads; strength design; allowable stress design
  • Tornado load example part IV– continuation of example parts I‐III to determine controlling load combinations
  • Wind loads vs. tornado loads – geographic comparisons of wind loads and tornado loads; where are tornado loads most likely to control at least some part of wind load design
  • Practice/evaluation
  • Determine design loads using both strength and ASD load combinations

Week 5 — Tornado shelters and safe rooms

Learning outcomes

  • Identify options for higher levels of tornado protection beyond ASCE 7‐22 minimums
  • Explain the differences between performance objectives for ASCE 7‐22 minimum tornado requirements, tornado shelters, and tornado safe rooms
  • Summarize key differences in tornado load procedures between ASCE 7‐22 and ICC 500

Lectures (5)

  • Tornado design beyond ASCE 7‐22 minimum requirements – current state requirements, codes, standards, and other guidance
  • Performance‐based tornado design – section 32.1.3 and appendix G; adaptations of performance‐based wind design
  • Tornado shelters – ICC 500 Storm Shelter Standard; tornado loads; debris impact loads; other loads and load combinations; architectural and other design considerations
  • Tornado safe rooms – FEMA P‐361 and FEMA P‐320; differences from ICC 500; grant funding for safe room construction
  • Course review – summary of key concepts, ASCE 7‐22 tornado load requirements, other code and standard tornado requirements

Exam — over whole course, although main focus is ASCE 7‐22 tornado loads (material from weeks 2‐4)

This course outline is subject to change.